Overview of Internet of Things Technology

The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) emerged as a vague idea in the late 20th century and can be traced back to the late 1990s. In his book "The Road Ahead" published in 1995, Bill Gates mentioned the idea of interconnected objects, but it did not receive much attention at that time due to limitations in wireless networks, hardware, and sensor device development.

The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) can be roughly traced back to the concept proposed by the MIT AutoID Center in 1999. The idea is to construct a network that covers everything in the world, utilizing information sensing devices such as barcodes, radio frequency identification (RFID), infrared sensors, global positioning systems, and laser scanners, and connecting any object to the Internet through wireless data communication and other technologies. This network facilitates information exchange and communication between people, people and things, and things themselves, enabling comprehensive acquisition of various information from the real world. Its functionalities include automated and intelligent identification, localization, tracking, monitoring, and management.

In 2005, at the World Summit on the Information Society held in Tunisia, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) officially introduced the concept of the "Internet of Things" in its publication "ITU Internet Reports 2005: The Internet of Things." The report emphasized the role of innovation in the development of IoT technology.

In 2009, IBM proposed the concept of a "Smart Planet," sparking a global research frenzy in the field of IoT and leading multiple countries to prioritize IoT technology in their information development strategies. Initiatives such as "Sense China" in China, the U-Japan plan in Japan, the U-Korea plan in South Korea, as well as deployments in Australia, Singapore, France, Germany, and other developed countries have accelerated the deployment of next-generation intelligent network infrastructure.

The concept of the Internet of Things was first proposed in 1999. At that time, based on the Internet, RFID technology, and EPC standards, a physical Internet of real-time information sharing of global objects was constructed using technologies such as radio frequency identification and wireless data communication. It was referred to as the "Internet of Things" or IoT for short.

The Internet of Things, or "The Internet of things," refers to an "internet of things at the object level" or an "internet with the participation of objects." It represents the extension, expansion, and integration of the traditional internet, denoted by the symbol "+." It encompasses three revolutionary changes based on the internet:

• Internet + Things: The extension of the user end of the internet to objects. The most significant change is the enhanced "interconnection of all things," transforming the ways of interaction between people, people and things, and things themselves, facilitating information exchange and communication.

• The integration of the internet itself with different forms of networks, such as telecommunications networks (especially mobile communication networks), broadcasting and television networks, and sensor networks. The key change is the fusion of information transmission networks with information perception networks.

• The application of internet thinking to various traditional industries, expanding and driving the evolution of economic forms. By utilizing information and communication technologies and internet platforms, the optimization and integration of social resource allocation are achieved. The innovative achievements of the internet are deeply integrated with traditional industries, creating new development models, enhancing overall innovation and productivity in society, and forming a new form of economic development based on the internet as infrastructure and an implementation tool.

The goal of the Internet of Things is to seamlessly integrate the virtual space with the real world, enabling the connection and control of real-world objects through the "information" provided by the virtual space. It aims to achieve the convergence of heterogeneous.

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